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Child Trafficking

Human Trafficking

Child Labor TraffickingChildren can be victims of sex and/or labor trafficking. Child labor trafficking may include situations where youth are compelled to work in agriculture, restaurants, family businesses, or to sell products through traveling sales crews. Child sex trafficking victims may be forced to engage in sex acts by gang members, family members, or strangers for something of value, such as money, a place to stay, drugs, or transportation. 

Select Resources below to find more trainings, reports and assessment tools related to the trafficking of children.



Child trafficking includes labor and/or sex trafficking. In the United States, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA), defines adult and minor victims of labor trafficking as anyone subjected to "the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purposes of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery" (22 USC § 7102(9)).  A minor of sex trafficking is someone subjected to "the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of a commercial sex act, in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age" (22 USC § 7102 (9-10)).  See the Federal Laws page for more detailed definitions.


Action-Means-Purpose Model


Child trafficking may be distinguished from other forms of exploitation or abuse by applying the Action + Means + Purpose Model. Child labor trafficking occurs when a trafficker takes any one of the enumerated actions, and then employs the means of force, fraud or coercion for the purpose of compelling the victim to provide labor or services. At a minimum, one element from each column must be present to establish a potential situation of labor trafficking involving minors. Child sex trafficking does not require the presence of force, fraud or coercion.

Assistance for Child Victims of Human Trafficking

A fact sheet explaining the assistance available to child victims of human trafficking.

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Issuance of Child Eligibility Letters on or after Applicant’s 18th Birthday if Application Received Prior to 18th Birthday

A program instruction describing the process by which an individual may request eligibility for federally funded assistance for a foreign national child who may have been subjected to human traffic

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Sex Trafficking Story | Child Sex Trafficking

Laura, a school counselor, called the National Human Trafficking Hotline because she was concerned that one of her middle school students, Alyssa, was engaging in commercial sex.

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Child Labor Trafficking in the United States

Child Labor Trafficking in the United States

In 2014 alone, the NHTRC received nearly 150 reports of child labor across the United States.

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